(c) It appears that the explosion in the forward magazines was vented through the sides of the ship from about Fr. Reference (f) actually shows the magazine explosion which resulted in the loss of ARIZONA. There is no doubt that the smokeless powder magazines detonated. Blazing furiously, Arizona quickly settled to the bottom of Pearl Harbor, a total loss. 2. 84 to 88. Just before all this shaking the quartermaster reported that a bomb struck #2 turret. There is no evidence that the camera was stopped at any time between pictures 46 and 208. The majority of engineering spaces were in condition "Z" and locked. ", It can be concluded from the above conditions that smokeless powder is difficult to detonate as a result of fire. Rode out to the USS Arizona with one of 10 remaining survivors Don Stratton and the project team from NPS and Autodesk I have been working with. Their sacrifice, and that of the other men lost at Pearl Harbor, is now permanently memorialized by the USS Arizona Memorial, erected over her sunken hull in the berth it has occupied since shortly after 8 AM on 7 December 1941. Colloquium on Contemporary History 1989-1998, DANFS - Dictionary of American Naval Fighting Ships, Needs and Opportunities in the Modern History of the U.S. Navy, Permitting Policy and Resource Management, "Ex Scientia Tridens": The U.S. The fatal blow to the ship came from a 1,760 pound bomb that was able to pierce the armor of the battleship. Burning oil on the surface of the water was ignited. Aug 26, 2018 - This Pin was discovered by Paul Baumgras. 14. After the big explosion and "Swish", the men painfully burned and wounded, dazed beyond comprehension, came out on the quarterdeck and I had to stop some of them from entering into the flames later on, and directed them over to the stbd side of the deck to the gangway for embarking and encouraging them to be calm. Between pictures 45 and 46 the camera was apparently stopped for an indeterminate time. At 0755 all "X" doors and fittings should have been closed and reference (d) states that they were all closed with very few exceptions. She displaced 29,158 long tons (29,626 t) at standard and 31,917 long tons (32,429 t) at deep load, over 4,000 long tons (4,060 t) more than the older ships. It therefore can be accepted as a fact that a torpedo did not hit ARIZONA. During this raid, Arizona was hit by one torpedo and eight bombs, one of which passed through a magazine and lit cordite, causing an expansion of gases followed by a massive explosion. ", "Cases in which pressures great enough to result in structural damage have occurred involved the burning or explosion of smokeless powder under circumstances not ordinarily encountered in the storage of the material in containers. She spent the next few years serving as gunboat for the Western Gulf Blockade Squadron until October 1864 when it received orders to serve the flagship for the squadron under Admiral David Farragut. did not want to, making phone calls. 8. The ARIZONA (BB 39), a Pennsylvania-class battleship designed for operation in the Pacific, was launched in June 1915. In any event, the six 14-inch and the two 5-inch smokeless powder magazines detonated. I looked around and saw that there was nothing that I could do. 110. Analysis of the destruction The damage of the Arizona was shocking. Arizonahad an overall length of 608 feet (185.3 m), a beam of 97 feet (29.6 m) (at the waterline), and a draft of 29 feet 3 inches (8.9 m) at deep load. It will be realized that the black powder magazine is surrounded by the smokeless powder magazines. A bomb hit on the stbd side of the after 5 inch guns and anti aircraft gun, and got most of the marine crew and anti aircraft crews. There were short pieces of the shell projecting almost horizontally outward at the top of the armor belt on both sides. It gutted the forward decks. There were lots of men coming out on the quarterdeck with every stitch of clothing and shoes blown off, painfully burned and shocked. C-L11-1/BB, NYIO, Serial Y-02149, of 7 October, 1943 (War Damage Report). I said to Mr. Fuqua, when the valve was opened, "There is no water pressure on". could reach the magazines through hatches left open on the third deck. A bomb which hit and detonated close to the port leg of the tripod at the superstructure deck level severed the port leg, and the starboard leg was insufficient to prevent forward collapse. I rushed to the Officer of the Deck's booth to call up for pressure, but the phones were all knocked off the hooks and out of commission, as while this was taking place there had been bomb hits up fwd, shuddering the ship violently and planes straffing the decks. on her wanted to save the line to tie up to one of the buoys, and assisted by a seaman from 4 turret, we rendered the bow line around and cast her off. 10 and 70, it is difficult to determine the exact magazines in which high order detonation took place, although the more severe damage is between about Frs, 10 and 33. Reveille sounded at 5:30 a.m. Sunday, same time as every day. I have looked at the Arizona explosion in detail, by examining the large scale drawings of the wreckage prepared by wreck divers in 1942-1943, the ship's general arrangement plans, and the film of the explosion and/or the rather extensive still photo collection which the Navy made during the course of salvaging what became in the end a constructive total loss. Forum rules. 10 to about Fr. Transcribed by RESEARCHER @ LARGE. ", "There is, however, incontrovertible evidence that explosions of nitrocellulose powders up to large sizes are capable of being propagated from box to box when they are initiated by detonation of high explosive charges. The attack started at 0755 with dive bombers over the Naval Air Station on Ford Island. - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -. Reference (a) is a fairly extensive report of damage prepared by the Navy Yard, Pearl Harbor and is based on salvage and diving operations covering a period of approximately 22 months. From reference (a) the ARIZONA had on board her full allowance of smokeless powder, arranged three magazines on each side of the vessel between frames 31 and 48 on the first platform. BB39/A9/L11-1 of 28 January, 1942 (Damage Report). The flames and smoke on the boat deck and galley deck were decreasing in intensity; I believe they were powder flames. On 19 April 1989, the Number Two 16-inch gun turret of the United States Navy battleship USS Iowa (BB-61) exploded. Pertinent information from the Ordnance Safety Manual published 1 September, 1941 by the Office of the Chief of Ordnance, U.S. Army, are quoted below: "Small amounts of unconfined smokeless powder burn with little smoke or ash and without explosion. Post Dec 29, 2008 #31 2008-12-29T20:42. 7. On the other hand, the detonation of 1000 pounds of black powder could easily initiate a detonation of the 14-inch smokeless powder. 1,547 160. All the references agree that the bombs which struck ARIZONA fell between 0815 and 0820. Immediately forward of ARIZONA at berth F-6 was TENNESSEE, moored starboard side to, and WEST VIRGINIA outboard of TENNESSEE, with both vessels being headed down channel. However, this appears not to have been the case, and the destruction of the ship was entirely the work of Japanese horizontal bombers, which struck her with several bombs. It seemed like the men, painfully burned, shocked and dazed, became inspired and took things in stride, seeing Mr. Fuqua, so unconcerned, STATEMENT OF DONALD A. GRAHAM, AMMl/c USN (Continued). U.S. Navy veteran Donald Stratton was station aboard the U.S.S. The crews from 3 and 4 turrets had to come out on deck as the turrets were flooded and proceeded to help with the casualties and getting the life rafts over the side. Underway during the 1930s. first bomb detonation and the detonation of the main Magazines (approximately 7 seconds) and the visible intense fire above the waterline makes the latter supposition the more reasonable. CO. ARIZONA ltr. if he wanted to go into the conning tower, but the Capt. If you can see this text here you should update to a newer web browser, Normal | Just had the most amazing and emotional Memorial Day experience ever. Almost simultaneously a torpedo attack on battleship row occurred. The battleship Arizona served with pride and distinction in the US Navy from 1916 until 1941.The map above highlights the events surrounding the USS Arizona as well as the duties the ship carried out over her lifetime. The precise location cannot be determined, but the general location can be spotted on a map of Pearl Harbor, which is also available. The explosion in the center gun room killed 47 of the turret's crewmen and severely damaged the gun turret itself. One of them was the USS Arizona, which went down after a bomb hit the powder magazine. Record Group 19, War Damage Reports & Related Records, 1942-49. The attack on the ship resulted in the deaths of 1,177 crewmen. The 5"/51 caliber powder magazines are located on the first platform aft of the 14-inch smokeless powder magazines and between frames 50 and 58, port and starboard. This fire spread rapidly over a large area and increased rapidly in intensity. NYPearl Itr. Times in all the references of the various sequences of events check reasonably well, that is, within 4 or 5 minutes. We three were trying to get out the port door at the after end of the bridge during all this shaking, but could not, we staggered to the stbd side and fell on the deck just fwd of the wheel. With respect to the properties of black powder, the following pertinent information is quoted from the same manual: "Black powder is regarded as one of the worst known explosive hazards. It seemed as though one bomb hit the port after anti-aircraft crew and came down through the casemate and Executive Officer's Office. Reference (b) lists eight bomb hits on the vessel, one of which apparently was large and of the armor piercing type. STATEMENT OF DONALD A. GRAHAM, AMMl/c USN - USS ARIZONA. In any event, the magazine explosion destroyed the ship almost completely forward of the foremast structure. This bomb, and possibly others, caused an intense fire which shortly covered the entire forecastle. Some of these caused damage to her after and midships areas, but their effects were minor compared with what resulted from one that penetrated beside her forward turrets. of the detonation. The explosion lifted the Arizona out of the water. Video clip from "Pearl Harbor The Real Story" At various places between pictures 46 and 208 minor explosions on the forecastle of ARIZONA and possibly on the stern of TENNESSEE, can be seen. USS Arizona (BB-39) sunk and burning furiously, 7 December 1941. ... rising straight up from her stack it was reported for many years that a bomb had gone down her stack and caused the explosion. This is consistent with the times reported. HMS Hood and USS Arizona Magazine Explosions . This tipped her foremast forward, giving the wreck its distinctive appearance. At the same time the ship was so thoroughly broken up forward of the foremast structure that evidence of a heavy bomb hit in the vicinity of turret II would be certain to be completely obliterated. document.write("whitet"); On the morning of Dec. 7, 1941, I was aboard the USS Arizona, being attached to the "V" Division on the ship, When the attack started I was in the aviation workshop which is located fwd of the quarterdeck, stbd side, Fr. Her sides were blown out and the turrets, conning tower, and much of the superstructure dropped several feet into her wrecked hull. Reference (f), of which a 3" x 5" movie strip is available, comprises about 400 pictures taken at the rate of 24 per second. Many qualified authorities have blamed powder storage outside of the magazines as the cause, but this is conjectural and probably will always remain so. Over 1100 of her crew were killed, including Rear Admiral Isaac C. Kidd, Commander Battleship Division One, and the ship's Commanding Officer, Captain Franklin Van Valkenburgh. On the other hand the armor belt was substantially intact and Pearl Harbor found absolutely no evidence of a torpedo hit on or just below the armor. document.write("@blarg.net"); I left the J.C. mess at general quarters. 12. When confined or in large quantities, the rate of burning increases with the temperature and pressure. Turret I with its barbette fell vertically approximately 22 feet, and turret II with its barbette fell approximately 23 feet. The USS Arizona was also destroyed with a large explosion. The whole port compartment, A-704, from the quarterdeck on was a flaming inferno and the ship settled radpidy from fwd aft. Then I walked to the otherside and down the officers' ladder to the bridge. A-704, stbd side, and proceeded to hook it up at 3 turret amidship. On the morning of 7 December, 1941, ARIZONA was moored to interrupted quay "F-7", headed down channel, starboard side to Ford Island. your own Pins on Pinterest Depth of water was about 45 feet, and ARIZONA's drafts were 32'-6" forward and 33 feet aft. But on a Sunday, the USS Arizona was slower to awaken. 200 feet. Actually, Pearl Harbor could find no damage to the armor gratings, although there was bomb damage both forward and to port of the uptakes. There are five such hatches in the vicinity of barbettes 1 and 2, one of which is almost directly above the black powder magazine. He then told me to see if I could get pressure turned on. The only people up there were the Capt., the quartermaster and myself. Highlight & Comment It is estimated that picture 46 was taken within 0.5 sec. The resultant explosion caused the ship to sink, and cost the lives of 1177 officers and crewmen. II turret. Yakovlev Yak-3; History of the Turán Medium and Heavy Tanks in World War II USS ARIZONA. Then I went up to the nav bridge. It has four red dots on it and three red lines running through it to show it was seriously damaged. Share with: ... 1,547 160. bill jurens. Picture 208 occurred approximately 7 seconds (24 frames per second) after the detonation shown in picture 46. ", "When smokeless powder is stored in magazines in containers or propelling charges, there is no evidence to indicate that fires will give rise to any unusual hazard. This series continues until picture 208. Seymour was part of a team which was comprised of the NPS and National Geographic photographers that for ten days documented the interior first and second decks of the 608-foot long … II turret. The black powder could have detonated either as the result of a bomb detonation below the third deck or a fire above the third deck passing down to the black powder magazines thru open hatches in the armored deck. Toward the end of the reel the sagged forward structure becomes apparent, although the smoke and flame obscure the entire foremast structure in the series of pictures following 203. For example, it appears that WEST VIRGINIA was struck by bombs at about this time, as was TENNESSEE. document.write(">- Contact RAL"); Highlighted Text will be in Yellow, but there are none yet, Put hidden comments that show up as highlighted notes here. 6. The Pennsylvania-class ships were significantly larger than their predecessors, the Nevada class. The ship had a metacentric height of 7.82 feet (2.4 â€¦ Then getting the small life raft on 3 turret barbette portside off and over the port stern, the water and oil being on deck and the ship settling fast, we got orders to embark in the motor boat at the stbd stern quarter. In the second wave, which began at about 8:50 a.m. saw the USS Pennsylvania set on fire and the destroyer USS Shaw destroyed. He further states that ARIZONA received a bomb hit forward almost simultaneously, and that ARIZONA'S forward magazine exploded. Early reports claimed that she had been hit by one torpedo in the first part of the action. BB39/A16 of 7 December, 1941 (Action Report). It is this jet of black smoke which apparently gave rise to the rumor that a bomb went down her stack. CO. ARIZONA ltr. The air raid siren sounded, followed by the General Quarters alarm. This was 25 feet (7.6 m) longer than the older ships. USS Arizona. It can be seen from the above that the ignition of black powder will almost inevitably result in an explosion. Suddently the whole bridge shook like it was an earthquake, flame came through the bridge windows which had been broken by gunfire. Our own war experience has indicated that an appreciable interval of time (longer than 7 seconds) is required for these factors to build up and create a mass detonation following a fire. This one was reported by reference (b) to have hit on the forecastle by No. This seems rather improbable, though, considering the small charge of explosive (less than 70 pounds of TNT) in this type of bomb, and the fact (pictures 46-208) that the initial fire was definitely above the waterline and of large-scale proportions. Discover (and save!) As I went to the boat deck I noticed that some of the stbd AA guns were firing - I think they were the fwd ones. 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