Also, how many cannon would one carry, and how many crew would be considered standard? Oceanic crossings lasted several days and he had to avoid the risks for them. Essentially, this is a 500 ton galleon, with length overall reaching 160 feet and a beam of 32 feet. He accomplished this with a whistle from the poop deck, while his assistant, the boatswain mate, directed the work at prow. It possesses three masts and is currently the largest ship in the game. For example, two galleons, the Santisima Trinidad (in 1754 and 1755) and the Nuestra Señora del Rosario(1749) had crews of over 384, as presented in the table which you can access by clicking the link below. 47 (2007):17-38. The boats had two or more gun decks that could be outfitted with 70 to 100 guns while the ship itself was manned by a crew of 200 to 400 sailors. Average speed is 7 knots. Although all galleons belonging to the Fleet of the Indies would sail together forming groups of 30 ships or more and were escorted by war ships to protect them, they had these cast iron cannons for their own protection, and in case of need they were shot by the soldiers aboard. He was the administrator of the ship and had to certify to the owners of the ship, owners of the cargo and the government officials that all contracts and laws were followed and taxes paid. That was the highest price that oceans took from Spanish galleons over several centuries. A high, square forecastle rose behind Storms, hurricanes, water leaks, diseases or pirate attacks would threaten crew’s lives constantly: “we are three or four inches close to death, which is the thickness of a vessel plank”.The feeling of danger was very present and death lurked everywhere; it was only the skills of officers and seamen what preserved them from sinking. She has navigated the Pacific and Indian oceans, crossed the Atlantic Ocean, and her wake has spread over the Mediterranean Sea, the Red Sea, the South and East China seas, the Aegean Sea, the Bosphorus strait, the Caribbean Sea and the whole East Coast of the US, covering thousands of nautical miles in an attempt to evoke her ancestors. Right behind is the Main mast, which reaches 120 ft. high and holds two sails. The boats had two or more gun decks that could be outfitted with 70 to 100 guns while the ship itself was manned by a crew of 200 to 400 sailors. Since her launching, a crew between 15 to 35 people have manned her across the seas and oceans around the world. He needed to be able to predict a storm and have the theoretical knowledge to chart a course, and calculate his position using mathematical formulas and computations. Vessel: EL GALEÓN ANDALUCÍAVessel Type: GalleonFlag: SPAINHomeport: Sevilla, SpainSparred length:Draft: 10’ 6”Beam: 33’Rig height: 121’Sail area: 10,010 square feetPower: 2x380HPHull: fiberglass, All photos courtesy of Fundacion Nao Victoria. The Gun deck would also accommodate most of the crew members. Galleons were constructed from oak (for the keel), pine (for the masts) and various hardwoods for hull and decking. He was also charged with the maintenance of the bilge pumps. During nighttime sailing, access is restricted to this deck for safety reasons. It falls between the smaller Sloop and larger Galleon in size. : Indio Contributions to the Acapulco-Manila Galleon Trade.” Explorations: a graduate student journal of Southeast Asian studies. It was not uncommon for a ship to arrive in Manila from Acapulco with only a fraction of their crew still alive. Hundreds of expert tradesmen (including carpenters, pitch-melters, blacksmiths, coopers, shipwrights, etc.) The cooper repaired containers, especially the barrels that carried water, wine and other provisions. Two or more gun decks were also included with 70-100 guns. History of Micronesia: A Collection of Source Documents. They had to know how to make gunpowder, fill grenades, select the type of projectiles to use against an enemy ship, maneuver, load and fire the cannon, maintain it and keep it steady aboard the moving ship. The officer in charge of the artillery was a sergeant. Smaller galleons functioned with a crew of 50, while the crew of the larger galleons could number more than 400. As a result, many indios of Filipino and Southeast Asian origin made up the majority of the crew. Their disposition is most humble in the presence of a Spaniard, and they show him great respect; but they can teach many of the Spanish mariners who sail these seas.”, “The little I understand about them makes me think that these are people most suited for the sea; and if the ships are manned with crews one third Spaniards and the other two-thirds Indians, the best mariners of these islands can be obtained, and many of them can be employed in our warships. In battle, sixty-six worked the guns, fifty manned small arms on the upper deck, and fifty sailed the ship. On the westward voyage, a Maestre de Plata or Master of the Silver was in sole custody of the chests of silver containing two or three million pesos destined for the shippers in Manila. The Galeón Andalucía is a replica of a 16th-17th century galleon, the only one in the world that sails in present days. One such case was Fernando Antonio Izquierdo, who in 1754 was found guilty of murdering Cayetano Méxica, a Mexican surgeon serving in Anigua, Guam. The Galleon boasts a crew size of up to four players, the most of any vessel in the game. But in the majority of cases, he writes, “this charge was more or less honorific, and the onboard activity of the captain consisted in nothing more that directing the defense of the ship in case of enemy attack.” He says that the general of the fleet could honor a distinguished gentleman by naming him as captain. Vol. Crew size depended on the size of the galleon. The caulker was tasked with filling the juncture of the hull planking and deck with oakum and tar. The galleon was an evolution of the caravel and carrack. The highest-ranking positions on the ship were the pilot, the master and the captain. The Egyptians, Cretans, and other ancient peoples used sail-equipped galleys for both war and commerce. Four were stationed in the powder room and as many as four carpenters repaired damage belowdeck. The ship so famous for its captain, Sir Francis Drake and the first English circumnavigation of the globe ending on September 26, 1580 in Plymouth after a voyage of 2 years, 10 months and 18 days. They were good for fighting in relatively still waters but lacke… The Brigantine is a medium ship for up to 3 crew members. At the age of 20, successful apprentices received a document certifying him as a sailor. There were three night watches divided in turns of four hours each: the first one or “guardia de prima”, that finished at midnight, the “guardia de modorra” (literally, drowsiness), that covered the coldest and most ungodly hours and finally the “guardia del alba” or dawn watch.Today, three bell rings announce lunch or dinner time, two bell rings mark a shift change, and a number of various chimes is used to announce emergencies. Schurz, William Lytle. Most galleons have three masts, two square rigged with a lateen sail on the stern-most mast. Many times individuals were sentenced to serve as crew on royal ships. While the pilot required knowledge in the sciences, experience and traditional knowledge was just as valuable. Typically the carpenter was the oldest crewmember on the ship. The Galleon is the largest Ship type in Sea of Thieves.Choosing the Galleon at the start of the game will allow yourself and three other players to join the crew. These individuals conceivably could have engaged with the CHamoru people in interactions of trade and cultural exchange under various circumstances. The majority would have died from starvation, disease and scurvy. Vol. It possesses three masts and is currently the largest ship in the game. In the fore part of this deck are the docking-manoeuvring area and the orlop-deck with 30 bunk beds for the crew; the aft area holds the rudder machinery and another docking-manoeuvring area.HOLDUnder the gun deck is the hold, an area which was used in the past to stow all loads and goods for the sailing. Choosing the Brigantine at the start of the game will allow yourself and two other players to join the crew. They were also charged with night watches, and when the night was over, to chant “Buenos Dias” in the morning. Peterson, Andrew. The boatswain was responsible for ensuring the cargo was stowed well and maintained throughout the voyage, maintaining all mechanisms of the ship and ordering repairs. It was important that the crew cleaned the ship thoroughly, including pumping the dirty water out of the bilges, on a daily basis. The Phoenicians were apparently the first to introduce the bireme (about 700 bc), which had two banks of oars staggered on either side The average age of sailors was 28 or 29, while the oldest were between 40 and 50. IRL Tall ship sailor: A ship like the sloop (at the scale in the game) could be crewed by 4-6 sailors. The Manila Galleon. In addition to these duties, the pages took orders from all of the sailors and apprentices on the ship. Their employment was for the duration of the expedition. The Galleon is allowed 614 pieces to be built on its frame (Atlas v18.61). It was the first time this method was applied to any ship heavier than 500 tons meant for oceanic sailing. The so-called “captain” would travel as a passenger with no specific duties. The General was the supreme commander of the fleet. It should be noted that Guam at the time was considered to part of the Philippine Islands and it is likely that someone from Guam served onboard one of the ships used in the Manila Galleon trade. Minnesota, Duluth, Tall Ships Festival 2016, El Galion, a Spanish Galleon Replica, sailing under Engine power. Legumes, rice, flour, bacon, salted fish and meat, nuts, cheese and honey completed the diet, and the only fresh food that could be enjoyed on board came from the livestock some passengers carried with them and any fishing they could do along the journey. Each gun would need 4-6 people and a ship of her length would have 7 per side. Intelligent and skilled sailors could advance to the position of gunner or sea officer and in some cases, if they had the means and wherewithal to stop work and attend classes in Seville, they could eventually advance to the position of pilot. The steward was in charge of the food stores and for dispensing rations to the crew. Essentially, this is a 500 ton galleon, with length overall reaching 160 ft. and beam 32 ft. Four masts hold 6 sails which measure almost 11,000 square foot. Despite the disadvantages of the ships, pirates were attracted to the galleons' large cargo capacity and the ability to outfit them as warships. A few centuries ago they had to trust their ancient navigation instruments.The pilot was in charge of navigation and therefore the lives of the crew would be in his hands. Mangilao: University of Guam, 2005. Sailing Ships Maine, a 501(c)3, creates life-changing opportunities for teens of all abilities and income levels to discover the ocean environment and expand leadership skills while encouraging them to consider further maritime training. For three centuries, these Spanish galleons crossed the Atlantic Ocean back and forth, sailed around the Caribbean Sea and the American coasts, and covered the Pacific route as well. This allowed galleys to navigate independently of winds and currents. Apprentices were sailors in training. Mangilao: Micronesian Area Research Center, University of Guam, 1940. 11, Issue 1. Gunners were expert sailors that had mastered the use of the cannon. You are literally guaranteedto encounter one through gameplay, making it a fairly easy to acquire - and nonetheless valuable - asset. It took three years to research the main historical and maritime archives in Spain and compile all necessary information about galleons’ shapes, details and measures so that this replica could be built. Many generals and admirals owned ships that they leased to the king. The boatswain mate was also in charge of disciplining apprentices and pages. Therefore, most … Officers and seamen would take care of the sails and rigging, obeying all instructions given by the captain and main officers such as cleaning up the decks, preparing oakum, checking sails or pumping out bilge water. The master was in charge of the financial and administrative aspects of the voyage. Because the deportees, prisoners and undesirables could come from South and Central America, Europe and Asia, the makeup of the crew was very diverse. Water constables were charged with the rationing of water. When the efforts of the carpenter and the caulker were not sufficient to repair a leak or free a blocked rudder, the diver would have to attempt to repair it either at sea or in port depending on the severity of the problem. Honolulu: University of Hawai`i at Manoa, 2011. There is hardly an Indian who has sailed the seas who does not understand the mariner’s compass, and therefore on this [Acapulco] trade-route there are some very skilful and dexterous helmsmen.”. Vol 1-55. No. Fight for the Manila galleons between The Centurion, Admiral George Anson s ship and a Manila ship… A galleon was a large, multi-decked sailing ship used primarily by the nations of Europe from the 16th to 18th centuries. Galley, large seagoing vessel propelled primarily by oars. The boatswain mate was primarily charged with being in command of the ships auxiliary craft. Less than a third of the crew was Spanish and they usually held key positions onboard the galleon. An estimated 16 sq. When galleons left Spain, they carried products such as wheat, oil, wine, cloth, weapons, paper, china, glass, medicines, tools and other European stuff. The carpenter was indispensable on a ship built mainly of wood. 1 Build info 1.1 Additional Components 2 Additional info 2.1 Base Values 2.2 Level increment 3 Gallery Once you have built a Large Shipyard, you will have the option to build the Skeleton for the Galleon. Blair, Emma H., James A. Robertson, and Edward G. Bourne eds. But fate would not always smile on them, and many of those men and women who embarked in search of new opportunities for their lives found an anticipated yet final destination and now rest on the bottom of the sea. Four masts hold 6 sails which measure almost 11,000 square feet. They trade power and durability for maneuverability and simplicity. These ships were the type of vessel used by the Spanish Crown for maritime expeditions during the 16th through the 18th centuries. “Spanish Galleons.” Guam Recorder. I think in order to counter this Rare should either increase the maximum crew size of a galleon to six maybe, or even add a new ship in between the brigantine and the galleon, increasing the galleon max size to six and making this new ship have a max size of four. This unstable employment led many to seek outside sources of income. Some of the crew members were shipwrecked in the islands, and some chose to stay and married CHamoru women. March – August. The replica has been designed and built by Ignacio Fernandez Vial, a naval engineer and historian, commissioned by ship owner, the Nao Victoria Foundation.During construction, a completely original and innovative technique was used: the hull and decks were built up in layers of fibreglass and after that the whole structure was lined with wood. Depending on the size of your crew, you’ll be sailing on one of two ships in Sea of Thieves. A sort of bread or biscuit called “bizcocho” (pound cake), which was twice-baked and prepared with thick flour constituted the base of the diet, and it was often eaten wet or in a state of putrefaction. He was also in charge of directing the crew during maneuvers on board the ship. Spain’s Men of the Sea: Daily Life on the Indies Fleet in the Sixteenth Century. Other positions affiliated with the galleons were: Constables were tasked with maintaining order on the ships. With so many people (and animals, kept for fresh meat, milk and eggs) crowded together in a small space, conditions on board a galleon could become extremely unpleasant—noisy, filthy and smelly. THE REPLICA OF THE GALLEONIt took three years to research the main historical and maritime archives in Spain and compile all necessary information about galleons’ shapes, details and measures so that this replica could be built. The poop deck was raised high and a crew … Sloops are highly maneuverable but only carry two cannons on board. Because of the experience required for this position, the average age of pilots was over 40 years. Punishing those involved in stealing food was another duty. Moreover, there was a code by which each galleon could communicate to others a change of course, a maneuver or an incident.Every galleon kept sailing during night time and only crewmembers on watch would remain active. Pablo E. Pérez-Mallaìna. A one- or two-pirate crew means you’ll be sailing aboard a sloop, while a crew … Galleons were intended to discover and then establish trade routes between Spain, America and the Philippines islands, and formed what was then called the “Fleet of the Indies”. The treasure ships as a rule, would move in convoy or flotas typically with the strongest ships hauling the most treasure. A huge lamp outstands in this deck. Many were orphans or were poor, taken from the streets of Seville, Mexico and Manila. “What Really Made the World go Around? Hulls were usually carvel-built. worked day and night for months before a galleon was seaworthy. While it cannot maneuver well like the smaller Sloop, the Galleon is unmatched in firepower and speed. A large proportion of sergeants and gunners were not Spanish but Germans, Flemings and Italians. Aside from officers, who did enjoy the privileges of cabin accommodation, the rest of the passengers had to look for any viable space on deck where they could keep their boxes or “ranchos” containing a few of their belongings and place their mats in order to sleep. Cleveland: Arthur H. Clark Company, 1903-1909. His duties also included overseeing the re-provisioning and moving of the provisions around the ship as needed. The name derived from “galley,” which had come to be synonymous with “war vessel” and whose characteristic beaked prow the new ship retained. At least 18 people are needed to hoist them: the main yard weighs more than 4,400 pounds.Below the forecastle are the dining room, the kitchen or galley and the rest rooms for the crew.Astern is the so called ‘Noble Area’. The Brigantine is a medium-sized Ship type in Sea of Thieves. MGTR Personnel Inspectors, purveyors, accountants and treasurers – they guarded and administered the money. Lévesque, Rodrique. Galleon, full-rigged sailing ship that was built primarily for war, and which developed in the 15th and 16th centuries. NOBLE AREAAccess to this area was only permitted to officers, captains, masters, pilots and high ranked passengers, who were the only ones to enjoy a private cabin. Dutton & Company, Inc., 1959. A pilot had to recognize the sea and landscapes where he sailed, be able to read the clues from the ocean, waves and sky, the winds and the animals. Since her launching, a crew between 15 to 35 people have manned her across the seas and oceans around the world. The Admiral was the second-in-command of the fleet. Explain the construction, capabilities, and function of the carrack ship, caravel ship, Dutch ship, and galleon ship. Galleons are large, the most difficult to sink, armed with more Cannons, Sails and Cannonball storage, but are more difficult to maneuver than any other ship and require several crew members to be constantly working together. The galleons that passed through the Marianas carried scores of crew members in addition to soldiers and colonial or mission helpers on their way to the Marianas and the Philippines. It is a single mast vessel with a maximum crew capacity of two. I need to find out details about 16th century Spanish galleons, namely the length, width and beam of a 500 ton galleon. Mortality rates were high, especially in the early years of the Manila galleon trade. It would be lit at night to mark the position of each vessel in a fleet. Driver, Marjorie G. The Spanish Governor of the Mariana Islands and the Saga of the Palacio. The general and admiral of each fleet was first selected for each expedition by the House of Trade and confirmed by the Spanish monarch and the Council of the Indies. Translated by Carla Rahn Phillips. Another source of crewmembers were deportees, prisoners and other undesirables from Spain and the colonies. In this case, the page was exclusively at the service of his protector, unlike “ship’s pages” that were at the service of the entire crew. Average speed is 7 knots. The youngest of the crew were the pages or ship’s boys. What kinds of people made up these galleon crews? Sailing a galleon can be tough because the ship is so big — you can’t see everything at once. However, as they sailed back from America or the Pacific Ocean, they were mainly loaded with precious metals, such as gold and silver, pearls, precious stones and other highly appreciated American and Asian goods.Only a small part of this area was preserved to load the crew’s food rations. ft. of habitable room corresponded to each person. More than 150 people, including officers, seamen, soldiers, traders, servants, families and passengers would fit in a 550 ton galleon similar to this one. The Philippine Islands, 1493-1803; explorations by early navigators, descriptions of the islands and their peoples, their history and records of the Catholic missions, as related in contemporaneous books and manuscripts, showing the political, economic, commercial and religious conditions of those islands from their earliest relations with European nations to the beginning of the nineteenth century. A more accurate sloop would be the length of the galleon and could be sailed by 8-15 but would need a crew of 30 or more to effectively fight her. The flotas would shun contact with other ships and would invariable run rather than fight. Due to their smaller size, Sloops are easier to repair than the larger Galleons. Historical research was then followed by structural design, a work that took 6 months, and later on followed the construction of the galleon, which lasted 17 months and employed 150 people until her launching in Punta Umbría (Huelva, Spain) on November, 2009. A galley is a type of ship that is propelled mainly by rowing.The galley is characterized by its long, slender hull, shallow draft, and low freeboard (clearance between sea and railing). He was responsible for not only obtaining the cargo, but the crew, ship’s equipment, arms and provisions. Searles, USN Commander P.J. All ship characteristics are also similar between these variants. He needed to ensure that all the material and human resources required to reach its destination were obtained and that the passengers and cargo were delivered in good condition. To cover the expense, galleons were often funded by groups of wealthy businessmen who pooled resources for a new ship. FORECASTLEThis area is a working deck which hosts the Fore mast, a maneuvering capstan, the bell and two cast iron, wooden stocked anchors that weigh 2,200 pounds each.The bell was used for communication purposes between galleons of the same fleet during foggy days and also to mark daily work shifts. The main deck stretches from bow to stern and contains the helm and cannons. QUARTER DECKThe Quarter deck hosts the Mizzen mast, the steering wheel, the binnacle and the pilot cabin. Her average speed is 7 knots. Spanish officials in Manila found it increasingly difficult to find men to crew their ships, especially for the long and arduous return voyage to Acapulco. They handled the rigging and ropes during maneuvers and attended to the sounding line that determined the water’s depth. The replica of this Noble Area includes four cabins, two restrooms and the so-called ‘Admiral Room’, which accurately reproduces the furniture proper to the 17th and 18th galleons. These crafts were used to load and unload the ship, to tow the ship when needed and to go in front of the ship to take soundings to avoid shallow water. For example, two galleons, the Santisima Trinidad (in 1754 and 1755) and the Nuestra Señora del Rosario (1749) had crews of over 384, as presented in the table which you can access by clicking the link below. Add a ship between the brig and galleon designed for 3-4, make the galleon a 5-6 man ship. The ships pages also kept track of time by turning the sand clock every half hour and reciting psalms or litanies that were answered in chorus by the crew. And they had to share the room with livestock such as horses, hens, lambs and even cows!All goods were loaded to the hold through the main grille which can be seen in the middle of this deck. A good sailor was one that could thread a cable through an anchor ring or deploy a sail in storm conditions. It was a large ship with an average capacity of 500 tons, and had a great speed for its size. The carpenter, caulker and diver made up the repair team of the ship. The surgeon was charged with the physical health of the crew while the chaplain was concerned with their spiritual heath. Upon their return and the completion of their expedition they were unemployed. The Flag Galleon is the largest of the three, and one of the largest ships in the game, rivaling the Treasure Galleon in size. Sailors handled the helm (a difficult task before the wheel was invented). Those with family ties to a high-ranking officer or who were able to forge a friendship with a crew member had the best protection. Virtually all types of galleys had sails that could be used in favorable winds, but human effort was always the primary method of propulsion. They set the course for the ship by watching the trim of the sails and the compass while implementing the orders of the pilot. Most were entered into service at the age of eight, although boys as young as seven were known to be pressed into service. 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